Chung, Seung-Young. A Discourse-functional Analysis of Particle Movement. All of the sentence-based factors in particle movement have the following limitations: ⑴ Each has its own counter- examples, ⑵ The correlation among the three main factors (pronominal object, the length of an object, and stress) could not be explained satisfactorily. However, discourse-functional theories provide us with the sufficient ground to solve the above limitations since the discourse-pragmatic functions underlies all of the sentence-based factors. The major discourse-functional elements which have an influence on particle movement are as follows: ⑴ repetition of the same referent, ⑵ proper noun object, ⑶ the relation between the whole and its parts, ⑷ definiteness of a noun phrase, ⑸ emotional factors. Particle movement, as one of the intricate linguistic phenomena, cannot be completely explained by any single theory or hypothesis. Therefore, the traditionally mentioned sentence-based factors in particle movement should be complemented by at least discourse-functional ones.