Chon, Ekaterina and Joh, Yoon-kyoung. 2018. A Corpus Approach to Dog
Metaphors in American English. English Language and Linguistics 24.3, 143-163.
This paper looks at animal metaphors on the example of DOG metaphors in the
Corpus of Contemporary American English. It examines the nominal, adjectival
and verbal uses of DOG metaphors and their evaluative meanings. This paper
attempts to explain how evaluation of metaphors depends on the word class and
features of the source domains it elaborates on. Based on many interesting
observations made in this paper, we arrive at two conclusions. First, we find the
generalization that the less animate DOG metaphors are, the less positive they
become since verbal DOG metaphors do not reveal positive connotations while
nominal and adjectival uses do. Second, we confirm Deignan's claim that
grammatical rigidness can be one of the factors that generate higher level of
metaphoricity since we found that the rigid form dogged is mostly used
metaphorically.

Keywords: metaphor, metonymy, animal metaphors, COCA, animacy, metaphoricity