Nagatsugu, Kento. 2018. Fragments of Self-Pronouns in English: A Direct
Generation Analysis. English Language and Linguistics 24.3, 121-142. This paper
explores an intersection of two central issues of Generative Grammar, ellipsis and
anaphora. Specifically, I focus on fragments of self-pronouns, i.e. short responses
constituted by single self-pronouns, and argue that they give a piece of evidence
for the direct-generation analysis of fragments, in which fragments are not derived
from underlying full sentences but directly generated as what they are. I
demonstrate that self-pronouns are much less restricted in fragments than in
sentences, showing cases of fragments of self-pronouns whose sentential
counterparts are ungrammatical for violation of Binding Condition A. Then,
Binding Theory as well as the deletion analysis of fragments are challenged. The
fact indicates that self-pronouns are all logophors or logophoric anaphoras when
they are fragments. This is predicted by Reinhart and Reuland’s (1993)
generalization that self-pronouns are anaphors only when they are arguments of
syntactic predicates. The requirement is not fulfilled in fragments, if they have
no covert sentential structures.

Keywords: Ellipsis, Direct Generation, Binding Theory, Logophoricity