Lee, Jeong-Shik. 2018. The Structure and Derivation of the English How come Construction. English Language and Linguistics 24.2, 63-85. This paper is concerned with how the how come construction in English can be derived. For this, I first establish the structure of non-finite how come construction, based on Johnson II (2014), and then I extend this structure to propose the structure of finite how come construction. The common ground of the proposed structure for both non-finite and finite how come constructions reflects the basic insight of Zwicky and Zwicky (1971)--how come is a reduced clause, though details are different. Most of the previous approaches, however, claim that how come is a syntactic unit either as a Complementizer (Collins 1991) or as a wh-phrasal unit (Ochi 2004). Indeed, it appears that there are some advantages with this analysis in accounting for a certain range of peculiar syntactic properties of how come construction. But I show that the current reduction analysis can explain these properties more adequately than the previous single unit analyses. The current analysis clearly shows how the sequence how come can be grammaticalized as a unit by demonstrating the relevant derivational stages. Importantly, I posit a null modal auxiliary verb, i.e., 0should, in the how come clause and show how this postulation can help deal with peculiarities of the how come construction.
Key words: how come, non-finite how come, finite how come, reduction analysis, single unit analysis